philippines spanish colony

    Previously, the Philippines was seen as a trading post for international trade but in the nineteenth century it was developed both as a source of raw materials and as a market for manufactured goods. The failure of the British to consolidate their position led to troop desertions and a breakdown of command unity which left the British forces paralysed and in an increasingly precarious position. Before the colonial times, the Philippines had primitive inhabitants. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. To this end, the Tejeros Convention was convened, where Aguinaldo was elected president of the new insurgent government. Pedro Paterno mediated between the two sides for the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. During the initial period of colonialization, Manila was settled by 1200 Spanish families. This gradually resulted in the death of both institutions: The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815. Forty-four years after Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines and died in the Battle of Mactan in 1521, the Spanish explored and colonialized the islands, starting with the founding of Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565. Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. The new economy gave rise to a new middle class in the Philippines, usually not ethnic Filipinos. The decree was published in Manila on August 5, 1598. These values and norms include self-preservation through power and abuse of authority, profound emphasis on hierarchy and social status, and familial values or close familial ties that promote nepotism. Spain is one of the foreign countries that … This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 15:01. The tropical mestizo heritage of the Philippines, home to many artistic and architectural jewels of universal value, was the result of the originality of the Filipinos to innovate styles and building systems based on materials available in their midst, and on the other hand, of the ineffable imprint left by more than 3 centuries of the Spanish colonization in this archipelago. In the mid-19th century, the Suez Canal was opened which made the Philippines easier to reach from Spain. Get a verified writer to help you with The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines. The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. Any person elected acquired elite status, diluting the political power given by the Spanish to the hereditary datus the old, Equivalent of the pre-Maura Law gobernadorcillo, Elected by the residents of the municipio, Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families, Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period. The Philippine Islands are named after King Philip. Such is the case with the Philippines which was a Spanish colony from 1521 to 1898 when the colonial rule ended with a Filipino revolution cut short when Spain ceded the country to the Americans with the signing of the Treaty of Paris for twenty million dollars. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. All sorts of products from China, Japan, Brunei, the Moluccas and even India were sent to Manila to be sold in exchange for Spanish silver dollars or 8-Real coins which came aboard the galleons from Acapulco. In addition, this is where the sentiment heard as, "Mi Barrio", first came from. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Manila was under British occupation and was being administered as a British colony. On February 4, 1899, the Philippine–American War began with the Battle of Manila (1899) between American forces and the nascent Philippine Republic. This second part of expedition was led by commander Juan Sebastian Elcano who ultimately completed the world's first circumnavigation in 1522. The pueblo or town was headed by the Gobernadorcillo or little governor. Magellan made a blood compact with the local chieftain of Cebu, Rajah Humabon as a sign of friendship. That year the Dutch promised the natives of Mindanao that they would return in 1649 with aid in support of a revolt against the Spanish. The event is now known as the Cry of Balintawak or Cry of Pugad Lawin, due to conflicting historical traditions and official government positions. It was introduced in 1780, vanished temporarily in 1787–1819, 1820–1822 and 1875–1822, and ceased to exist in the middle of the 1890s. [6] When the Spanish arrived in the area, they incorporated this territory to the Captaincy of the Philippines following the 1582 Cagayan battles. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. Spain had control of the Philippines for more than 300 years, so it’s no surprise that there are many Filipino customs, traditions, and cultural norms that can be traced back to the Spanish. Visitas could be specific or general. The Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571, and by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. During the British occupation of Manila (1762–1764), Diego Silang was appointed by them as governor of Ilocos and after his assassination by fellow Filipinos, his wife Gabriela continued to lead the Ilocanos in the fight against Spanish rule. The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly. At the time, Great Britain and France were at war, in what was later called the Seven Years' War. They defended their territories with trenches designed by Edilberto Evangelista. The downfall of Marcos and return of democratic government. In December 1898, the Treaty of Paris (1898) was signed, ending the Spanish–American War and selling the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. Why was Philippines involved in the Spanish American War? On that date, Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared a state of war in these provinces and placed them under martial law. Some stamps have flaws. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands, justice, finance and the municipal police. In the Philippines, many of those who pushed for a revolution were member of freemasonry like Andrés Bonifacio. Philippines Spanish Colony - Stamp Collection - Mostly Used - 2 Scans - W87 You are bidding on a World Stamp Lot. It pushed the reform movement and carried out the propaganda work. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish. I The original question was , “How did the Spanish colonization affected the Philippines?”. In the ensuing Battle of Mactan, Magellan and other Spanish soldiers lost their lives, outnumbered by the Mactan tribesmen. [23], While the trade did bring some results which were beneficial to the Philippines, most effects were disadvantageous. Among those prominent is Emilio Aguinaldo, a chinese mestizo,[21] and who was the Gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. Under the cedula system taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for payment of the tax, and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. were displaced from government positions by the Peninsulares, whom the Insulares regarded as foreigners. They left their mark probably more so than any other foreign nation to which the Philippines was subjected.Spain was one of the most powerful nations in t… Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration. The Cavite Mutiny implicated the priests Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (see Gomburza) whose executions would influence the subversive activities of the next generation of Filipino nationalists, José Rizal, who then dedicated his novel, El filibusterismo to these priests. His annual salary, however, was only P24 but he was exempted from taxation. The archipelago was Spain's outpost in the orient and Manila became the capital of the entire Spanish East Indies. King Philip died on September 13, just forty days after the publication of the decree, but his death was not known in the Philippines until middle of 1599, by which time a referendum by which indigenous Filipinos would acknowledge Spanish rule was underway. Most stamps are used and hinged, but there are some new/unused stamps as well, but mostly hinged. Freemasonry was important during the time of the Philippine Revolution. [22] These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. The industrialization of Europe created great demands for raw materials from the colonies, bringing with it investment and wealth. In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim defenders[12] There were also communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo,[13] Negros[14] and Vigan. The Western World was quickly changing and sought less political control from the Roman Catholic Church. The Spanish colonial period ended with the Philippine Revolution and Spanish-American War in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonialization of the Philippines. [9] At the immediate south of Manila, Mexicans were present at Ermita[10] and at Cavite[11] where they were stationed as sentries. With the loss of its naval forces and of control of Manila Bay, Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines. All were defeated by the Spanish and their Filipino allies by 1597. [citation needed] On June 12, 1898 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence declaring independence from Spain. Philippine Economy under Spain The founding of the Economic Society of Friends of the Country helped in theagricultural advancement of the country. The encomienda system was abused by encomenderos and by 1700 was largely replaced by administrative provinces, each headed by an alcalde mayor (provincial governor)[20] The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza, a central area for town activities such as the fiesta, and where government buildings, the church, a market area and other infrastructures were located. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until 1559 because of European politics and wars in northern Europe. Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. There he became embroiled in discussions whether to replace the Katipunan with an insurgent government of the Cavite rebels' design. Some Japanese ships visited the Philippines in the 1570s in order to export Japanese silver and import Philippine gold. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro.He set up friendly relations with some of the local chieftains and converted some of them to Roman Catholicism. By 1884, the tribute was replaced by the cedula personal, wherein everyone over 18 were required to pay for personal identification. Some Europeans immigrated to the Philippines to join the wealth wagon, among them Jacobo Zobel, patriarch of today's Zobel de Ayala family and prominent figure in the rise of Filipino nationalism. After the Liberals won the Spanish Revolution of 1868, Carlos María de la Torre was sent to the Philippines to serve as governor-general (1869–1871). Manila became a major center of trade in Asia between the 17th and 18th centuries. Spanish settlement in the Philippines first took place in the 1500s, during the Spanish colonial period of the islands. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants. But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos (collectors of the tribute), as well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century. "Recollect Missions, 1646–1660", in, Fayol, Joseph. Another reason for the relatively easy colonization of the Philippines is the utter lack of military capability of the multiple barangays. After Humabon converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Carlos, he requested Magellan to subjugate his enemy Lapu-Lapu, the chief of nearby Mactan Island. The officials of the pueblo were proficient. The first task was the reduction, or relocation of indigenous Filipinos into settlements. The first Filipino Masonic lodge was Revoluccion. Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. It took various forms such as the building and repairing of roads and bridges, construction of public buildings and churches, cutting timber in the forest, working in shipyards and serving as soldiers in military expeditions. Shortly after his return to Spain, Philip ordered an expedition to the Spice Islands, stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands of the west"[2] in order to set up an outpost in Asia and engage in the spice trade. This could be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. In state affairs, the Criollos, known locally as Insulares (lit. The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years. In 1891, Del Pilar sent Laktaw to the Philippines to establish a Masonic lodge. The Spaniards started to explore the Philippines in the early 16th century when Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands and reached Cebu in 1521. The Spanish ships were not badly damaged and casualties were low. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated. Don't waste time. In December 1889, Marcelo H. del Pilar established, with the help of Julio Llorente, the Solidaridad in Madrid. His yearly salary was 40,000 pesos. Some its members included José Rizal, Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Baldomero Roxas, and Galicano Apacible. This settlement, at present-day Cebu City, became the capital of the new Spanish colony, with Legazpi as its first governor. Named after its author, Don Antonio Maura, the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time, the law reorganized town governments in the Philippines with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous. Magellan made a blood compact with the local chieftain of Cebu, Rajah Humabon as a sign of friendship. Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government. Majority of the expatriates supported the leadership of del Pilar. The second battle is the most famous and celebrated of the three, with nearly even forces (10 ships vs 10 ships), resulting in the Dutch losing their flagship and retreating. In the later years of the 18th century, Governor-General Basco introduced economic reforms that gave the colony its first significant internal source income from the production of tobacco and other agricultural exports. [43][failed verification] Emilio Aguinaldo and the Katipuneros of Cavite were the most successful of the rebels[44] and they controlled most of their province by September–October. Filipino forces then laid siege to Manila, as had American forces. The Spanish colonization in the Philippines lead to us to make some questions in our mind on how does the Filipino survived? He was responsible for peace and order, recruited men for communal public works, and collecting the barrio's taxes. The Dutch and British both bitterly opposed it because they saw the company as a direct attack on their trade in ASia. The constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and Spanish. Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars. After Humabon converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Carlos, he requested Magellan to subjugate his enemy Lapu-Lapu, the chief of nearby Mactan Island. The opening of the Philippines to world trade, "The Philippine Archipelago" By Yves Boquet Page 262, De Jesus, Luis & De Santa Theresa, Diego. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor. Only the third battle of 1624 resulted in a Dutch naval victory. The Dutch finally withdrew, and the Spanish made peace with the Joloans, and then also withdrew. [28], Also there was the bandalâ (from the Tagalog word mandalâ, a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed), an annual forced sale and requisitioning of goods such as rice. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. Spain’s foremost aim in the Philippines was to spread their religion. [citation needed] Bonifacio refused to recognize this and he was executed for treason in May 1897. Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. In the 1570s, the Spanish traders were troubled to some extent by Japanese pirates, but peaceful trading relations were established between the Philippines and Japan by 1590. Following several more Spanish expeditions, the first permanent settlement was established in Cebu in 1565. [40] Andrés Bonifacio called for a general offensive on Manila[41] and was defeated in battle at the town of San Juan del Monte. Resistance against Spanish rule was regional in character, based on ethnolinguistic groups.[39]. Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, proficient in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gobernadorcillo. On the national level or social class, the King of Spain, via his Council of the Indies (Consejo de las Indias), governed through his representative in the Philippines, the Governor-General of the Philippines (Gobernador y Capitán General). [citation needed]. A Legend of Freedom: Francisco Dagohoy and the Rebels of Bohol", "Philip II and the "Philippine Referendum" of 1599", "Philip II, the Philippines, and the Hispanic World", Shamanism, Catholicism and Gender Relations in Colonial Philippines 1521-1685, Timeline of Philippine History: Spanish colonization, National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Philippines_(1565–1898)&oldid=991336811, 1521 establishments in the Spanish Empire, Articles with failed verification from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, All Wikipedia articles written in Philippine English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with failed verification from October 2011, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Civil and Spiritual Authority (through Royal Patronage), Municipal council composed of the municipal captain, the chief lieutenant, the lieutenant of police, the lieutenant of fields and the lieutenant of livestock, all of which were elected by the residents of the municipio, Composed of 6 to 10 appointed royal councilors, Governed all the Spanish colonies in the King's name, and had legislative power, Served as the court of appeals for the colonies, Initially exercised executive (as Governor), legislative, judicial (as President of the Audiencia), military (as Captain General), and ecclesiastical (as Vice Patron) powers, By 1821 or 1875, the office became Governor General, Appointed by the King with the advice of the council and probably the Viceroy prior to 1821, Had full spiritual authority over the army and navy as military Vicar General of the islands, Advised the Captain General, especially in matters concerning the governance and provisioning of the Church in the Philippines. He was arrested just a few days after founding the league. Then he proceeded to establish a Spanish town on Cebu Island, to convert the people to Roman Catholicism. These were Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija. Appointed dignitaries or the staff of a diocese, if the captain general failed to do so, Functioned as the Supreme Court and advised the Captain General, Initially composed of four judges (oidores), an attorney-general (fiscal), and a constable, with attached advocates for the accused, a defender of the naturales (“natives”), and other minor officials; the number of oidores and fiscales would be increased after, Took charge of government upon the death of the governor (mayor) up to the arrival of his successor, Exercised executive and judiciary powers in the province, Until the mid-19th century, he had the privilege to engage in trade (indulto de comercio), which occasioned many abuses against the local population, No provision was made restricting the alcalde mayor to engage in trade, If a provincia was large, the alcalde mayor had a corregidor to administer over, Provincial council which assisted the alcalde mayor, Composed of a public prosecutor, finance administrator, treasurer, vicars forane, provincial doctor, and four principles of the capital elected by the capitanes municipales of the province, Administered over a pueblo, assisted by other pueblo officials, Position was initially restricted to the local married men of the elite (principalia), By 1768, the position became elective. 1521, Mar 16. 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